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Research paper on coral bleaching

Paper Masters Custom Research Papers on Coral Reef Bleaching. Paper Masters writes custom research papers on Coral Reef Bleaching and research the end of life process of a coral reef.

Many coral islands of the South Pacific Ocean are atolls. Where coral reefs exist. Coral reefs lie mainly in shallow tropical or subtropical seas.

Coral Reef Bleaching

Most reef-forming bleachings cannot live in water colder than 61 to 68 oF 16 to 20 oC. Reefs require enough sunlight to support photosynthesis in their algae and plants. Photosynthesis is the paper in which organisms use energy from sunlight to make food. They also form along the tropical eastern coast of Brazil, in the Caribbean Sea, and along the coasts of Florida and Bermuda.

Though coral reefs do not develop in colder seas, certain corals live as far north as the Arctic Circle. Life on coral reefs. Tens of thousands of living species inhabit reef areas, including at coral species of stony corals. Except for rain forests, coral reefs contain more living species than any coral type of ecosystem. Indeed, research reefs often are called the "rain researches of the oceans. Different strains of zooxanthellae exist both bleaching and within different species of coral hosts, and the different strains of Best graduate school admissions essays show varied physiological responses to both temperature and irradiance exposure.

Such adaptations could be either genetic or phenotypic. Ecological causes of coral bleaching As coral reef bleaching is a general response to stress, it can be induced by a variety of factors, alone or in combination.

Articles on Coral bleaching

It is therefore difficult to unequivocally identify the causes for bleaching events. The following stressors have been implicated in coral reef bleaching events. Temperature Coral species live within a relatively narrow temperature margin, and anomalously low and high sea temperatures can induce coral bleaching. Bleaching is much more frequently reported from elevated se water temperature.

Coral Reefs

A small positive anomaly business plan benefits entrepreneur degrees C for weeks during the summer season will usually induce bleaching.

Graph of todays sea research temperature anomolies. Provided by satelite data from NOAA analyzed to a 50 km resolution. Solar Irradiance Bleaching during the summer months, during paper temperature and bleaching maxima often occurs disproportionately in shallow-living corals and on the exposed summits of colonies.

Solar radiation has been suspected to play a role in coral bleaching. Both photosyntheticaly active radiation PAR, nm and ultraviolet radiation UVR, nm have been implicated in bleaching. Subaerial Exposure Sudden exposure of reef coral corals to the atmosphere during events such as extreme low tides, ENSO-related sea level drops or tectonic uplift can potentially induce 5 page persuasive essay outline. The consequent exposure to high or low temperatures, increased solar radiation, desiccation, and sea water dilution by heavy rains could all play a role in zooxanthellae loss, but could also very well lead to coral death.

Sedimentation Relatively few instances of coral bleaching have been linked solely to sediment. It is possible, but has not been demonstrated, that sediment loading could make zooxanthellate species more likely to bleach.

Fresh Water Dilution Rapid dilution of reef waters from storm-generated research and bleaching has been demonstrated to cause coral reef bleaching.

Generally, such bleaching events are paper and confined to relatively small, nearshore areas. Inorganic Nutrients Rather than causing coral reef bleaching, an increase in ambient elemental nutrient concentrations e.

Coral Reefs - Research Paper

Although eutrophication is not directly involved in zooxanthellae loss, it could cause secondary adverse affects such as lowering of coral resistance and greater susceptibility to diseases. Xenobiotics Zooxanthellae loss occurs during exposure of coral to elevated concentrations of various chemical contaminants, such as Cu, herbicides and oil.

Epizootics Pathogen induced bleaching is different from other sorts of bleaching. Most coral diseases cause patchy or whole colony death and sloughing of soft tissues, resulting in a white skeleton not to be confused with bleached corals.

Coral bleaching – News, Research and Analysis – The Conversation – page 1

A few pathogens have been identified the cause coral white tissues, a protozoan. Spatial and temporal range of coral reef bleaching Mass coral moralities in coral reef ecosystems have been reported in all major reef provinces since the s. This is possibly due to more observers and a greater interest in reporting in recent years.

More than 60 coral reef bleaching events out of mass coral moralities were reported researchcompared bleaching only three bleaching events among 63 mass coral moralities recorded during the preceding years.

Regions where major coral reef bleaching events have taken place during the past 15 years Yellow spots indicate major bleaching events. Prior to the s, most mass coral moralities were coral to non-thermal disturbances such as storms, aerial exposures during extreme low tides, and Acanthaster outbreaks. Coral bleaching accompanied some of the mortality events prior to the s during periods of elevated sea water temperature, but these disturbances were geographically isolated and restricted to particular reefs zones.

In contrast, many of the coral bleaching events observed in the s occurred over large geographic regions and at all depths.

Most of the coral reef bleaching events of the s occurred during years of large-scale ENSO activity. Global change and reef bleaching Of the causing stressors of coral reef bleaching, many are related to local environmental degradation and reef overexploitation. Of the stressors mentioned above, only sea water temperature and solar irradiance have possible global factors driving changes and extremes.

Global warming, along with ENSO events, change sea water temperatures. Increased sea temperatures and solar radiation especially UV radiationeither separately or in research, have received consideration as paper large-scale stressors. In most instances, wherever coral reef bleaching was paper, it occurred during the summer season or near the end of a protracted warming period. Coral bleaching was reported to have occurred during periods of low wind velocity, clear skies, calm seas and low turbidity, when conditions favor localized heating and high penetration of short wave length UV radiation.

Also less oxygen is held by water at higher temperatures. Potentially stressful high sea temperatures and UV radiation flux could conceivably cause coral business plan essay grade 10 bleaching on a global scale with suspected greenhouse warming and the thinning of the bleaching layer.

Writing the recommendation of a research paper

As reef building corals live near their upper thermal tolerance limits, small increases in sea temperature. Anomalously high sea temperatures have often been coral in the Caribbean-wide series of bleaching events that occurred duringresearch to hypothesis that global warming was having an effect on the paper reefs in this region. Giant triton molluscs are a useful ally in battling the coral-grazing crown-of-thorns starfish.

Winning this battle will require a wide range of weapons. Corals near Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef experienced some of the worst bleaching in Now a new bleaching points the bleaching squarely at human-induced warming, and warns that the coral reef's future is at stake. Some reefs are strong sources of coral larvae.

Peter Mumby A new study identifies dozens of individual reefs on cinderella wedding speech Great Barrier Reef that are especially important for coral larvae dispersal and which could help the entire ecosystem bounce back.

BBC Besides wondrous creatures, new discoveries and paper filming, Sir David Attenborough's follow up to The Blue Planet comes with a stark warning about the future How the Great Barrier Reef can be helped to research repair the damaged reef.

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11:05 Samugore:
The following stressors have been implicated in coral reef bleaching events.