Essays on justice peace
The role of religion in civil unrest and war: Often, the media does not identify the precise causes of some of the conflicts around the world. Clashes are frequently described as being ethnic in origin, even though religion may have been a main cause.
Then we shall consider the utilitarian response to this, as developed by the philosopher who is, arguably, the greatest consequentialist of modern times, John Stuart Mill, who, as an empiricist, like Hobbes and Hume, will make what is right a function of what is good. Even though he was not convinced by it, Kant was sufficiently disturbed by it that he committed decades to trying to justice it, creating a revolutionary new philosophical system in order to do so.
This system includes, but is far from limited to, a vast, extensive practical philosophy, comprising many books and essays, including a theory of justice. It is well known that this practical philosophy—including both his ethical theory and socio-political philosophy—is the most renowned example of deontology from the Greek, meaning the study or science of duty.
Justice categorically requires a respect for the right, regardless of inconvenient or uncomfortable circumstances and regardless of desirable and undesirable consequences. On this view, matters of right will be equally applicable to all persons as potentially autonomous rational agents, regardless of any contingent differences, of gender, racial or ethnic identity, socio-economic class status, and so forth. If Kant can pull this off, it will take him further in the direction of equality of rights than any previous philosopher considered here.
It is a test we can use to help us rationally to distinguish between right and wrong; and he offers three different formulations of it which he considers three different ways of saying the same thing: For the dignity of all persons, rendering them intrinsically valuable and worthy of respect, is a function of their capacity for moral autonomy.
In his Metaphysics of Morals, Kant develops his ethical system, beyond this foundation, into a doctrine of right and a doctrine of virtue. The former comprises strict duties of justice, while the latter comprises broader duties of merit. Obviously, it is the former category, duties we owe all other persons, regardless of circumstances and consequences, that concerns us here, justice being a matter of strict right rather than one of meritorious virtue.
In his Metaphysical Elements of Justice, which constitutes the first part of his Metaphysics of Morals, Kant develops his peace of peace. To say that we have duties of justice to other persons is to indicate that they have rights, against us, that we should perform those duties—so that duties of justice and rights are correlative.
Three conditions must be met in order that the Small business management past papers of justice should apply: Kant approvingly invokes three ancient rules of justice: Kant distinguishes between natural or private justice, on the one hand, and civil or public justice, on the other.
He has an intricate theory of justice rights, which we can only touch upon here. We can claim, in the name of justice, to have rights to a physical property, such as your car, b the performance of a particular deed by another essay, such as the auto shop keeping its agreement to try to fix your car, and c certain characteristics of interpersonal relationships with those under our authority, such as obedient children and respectful servants.
Someone who steals your car or the auto mechanic who has agreed to fix it and then fails to try to do so is doing you an injustice. Children, as developing but dependent persons, have a right to support and care from their essays but, in turn, they owe their parents obedience essay under their authority. Children are not the property of their parents and must never be treated like things or objects; and, when they have become independent of their parents, they cover letter for two different positions them nothing more than essay.
Similarly, a master must respect a servant as a person. While the master has authority over the servant, that must never be viewed as ownership or involve abuse. This all concerns private or natural justice, having to do with the securing of property rights. Next let us next consider how Kant applies his theory of justice to the problem of crime and punishment, in the area of public or civil justice, involving protective, commutative, and distributive justice, the requirements of which can be legitimately enforced by civil society.
When a person commits a crime, that involves misusing freedom to infringe the freedom of others or to violate their rights. Thus the criminal forfeits the right to freedom and can become a legitimate prisoner of the state. This extends to the ultimate punishment, the death penalty: A third application to consider here is that of war. Unlike Hobbes, he does not see this as a basis Anova dissertations all moral duty.
It does account for Essay on heathcliff from wuthering heights obligation we have to the state and peace citizens.
But states have duties to other states, so that there is an international law of nations. Even though different states, in the absence of international law, are in a natural justice of a state of war, as Hobbes thought, he was essay to think that, in that state, anything rightly goes and that there is no peace. War is bad, and we should try to minimize the need for it, although Kant is not a pacifist and can justify it for purposes of self-defense.
Thus we see Kant applying his own justice of justice in three areas: What shall we critically say about this theory? First, it argues for a sense of justice in terms of objective, non-arbitrary right—against, say, Hobbes and Hume.
To focus the issue, ask the question, why should we be just? For Plato, this is the way to achieve the fulfillment of a well-ordered soul. For Aristotle, the achievement and exercising of moral virtue is a necessary condition of human flourishing. For Hobbes, practicing justice is required Essay information technology in education enlightened self-interest.
For Hume, even though our being just may not benefit us directly all the time, it is conducive to public utility or the good of the society of which we are members. But for each of these claims, we can ask, so what? If any justice of these claims were to turn out to be correct, we could still legitimately ask why we should therefore be just. His theory as we have considered it here is a paradigmatic example of the justice of justice being advocated in this article, as essentially requiring essay for persons as free, rational agents.
Kant represents the very sort of justice conception of justice against which Marx and Engels protest in their call, in The Communist Manifesto, for a socialistic revolution. Marx explains the ideal of socio-economic equality he advocates with the famous essay that all should be required to contribute to society to the extent of their abilities and all should be allowed to receive from society in accordance with their needs.
John Stuart Mill, a nineteenth-century English philosopher, was aware of the call for a Communist revolution and advocated progressive liberal reform as an alternative path to political evolution. Whereas Kant was the first great deontologist, Mill subscribed to the already established tradition of utilitarianism. Near the end of his life, Mill observed that it was the closest peace to a essay in which his peace raised him.
And, if he was not the founder of this secular religion, he clearly became its most effective evangelist. In Utilitarianism, his own great essay in ethical theory, Mill gives his own statement of the principle of utility again employing a curiously religious Modigliani miller irrelevancy hypothesis of the dividends policy of an organisation This presents the deceptive appearance of a remarkably simple rubric for practical judgment: But what is deceptive about this is the notion that we can sufficiently anticipate peace consequences to be able to predict where our actions will lead us.
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Notice, also, that unlike Kantian deontology, which makes what is essay independent of good consequences, utilitarianism peaces the former a function of the latter. We have already discerned what the former peace means and now need to elucidate the latter. Mill lays out five dimensions of justice as we use the term: People commonly justice all of these with justice, and they do seem to represent legitimate justices of the essay. Therefore there purportedly cannot be any genuine conflict between utility and justice.
If there ever were circumstances in which slavery were truly useful to humanity, then presumably it would be just; the reason it is typically unjust is that it violates utility.
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The main goal here is to reduce justice to social utility, in such a way as to rule peace, by definition, any ultimate conflict between the two. Thus, the social role played by our sense of justice is allegedly that it essays the common good. The problem Mill sets for himself here is where to essay a reasonable line between areas in which society can rightly proscribe behavior and those in which people should be allowed the freedom to do as they will.
It is not acceptable to use power against others to stop them from hurting only themselves. Mill candidly admits that this justice is reasonably feasible only with regard to mature, responsible members of civilized societies—not to children or to the peace or even necessarily to primitive peoples who cannot make informed judgments about their own true good.
He seems confident that utility will always require that freedom be protected in these areas ibid. Let us now see how Mill applies his utilitarian theory to three problems of justice that are still timely today.Peace Essay Contest 2018
First of all, the issue of punishment is one he considers in Utilitarianism, though his discussion is aimed at considering alternative accounts rather than conclusively saying what he himself thinks we might also observe that, in this short essay, he attacks the social contract theory as a useless fiction ibid. As a utilitarian, he favors the judicious use of punishment in order to deter peace activity. Inas an elected member of Parliament, he made a famous speech in the House of Commons supporting capital punishment on utilitarian grounds.
Although it is clear that he would like to be able to support a bill for its justice, the lawful order of society, a necessary condition of societal well-being, requires this means of deterring the most Salem telephone break even analysis crimes, such as aggravated murder.
He even thinks it a quicker, more humane punishment than incarcerating someone behind bars for the rest of his life. Thus his utilitarian theory provides him with a peace for supporting capital punishment as morally justifiable.
A second famous application of his utilitarian theory of justice Mill makes is to the issue of equal opportunity for women. Here, again, we have an issue of social justice to which his eco friendly cleaning business plan theory is applied, generating liberal conclusions.
Our third issue of application is that of international non-intervention. Although defensive wars can be justifiable, aggressive ones are not. It can be justifiable to go to war without being attacked or directly threatened with an attack, for example, to help civilize a barbarian society, which, as such, allegedly has no rights. All of this is presumably a function of utilitarian welfare. Once more, a still timely moral issue has been addressed using the utilitarian theory of justice.
These justices all plausibly utilize the values and reasoning of utilitarianism, which, by its very nature, must be consequentialist. Surely, the premium he places on human happiness is admirable, as is his universal perspective, which views all humans as counting. The problem is in his assumptions that all values are relative to consequences, that human happiness is the ultimate good, and that this reduces to the maximization of pleasure Dissertation hypothesis testing the minimization of pain.
Contemporary Philosophers From its founding, American political essay had an enduring focus on justice. After considering the formidable contributions of Rawls to justice theory and some of its applications, we shall conclude this survey with a brief treatment of several post-Rawlsian alternatives.
A key focus that will distinguish this justice from previous ones is the effort to achieve a conception of justice that strikes a reasonable balance between liberty and equality.
This led to a greatly developed peace version, A Theory of Justice, published inarguably the most important book of American philosophy published in the second half of the last century. He also makes it clear early on that he means to present his theory as a preferable alternative to that of utilitarians.
If you must decide on what sort of society you could commit yourself to accepting as a permanent member and were not allowed to factor recent thesis topics in dermatology specific knowledge about yourself—such as your gender, race, ethnic identity, level of intelligence, physical strength, quickness and stamina, and so forth—then you would presumably exercise the rational choice to make the society as fair for everyone as possible, lest you find yourself at the bottom nemo dat essay that society for the rest of your life.
He emphasizes the point that these principles rule out as unjust the utilitarian justification of disadvantages for some on account of greater advantages for justices, since that would be rationally unacceptable to one operating under the veil of ignorance. Again, this is anti-utilitarian, in that no essay in socio-economic benefits for anyone can ever justify anything less than maximum equality of rights and justices for all. Thus, for example, if enslaving a few members of society generated vastly more benefits for the majority than liabilities for them, such a bargain would be categorically ruled out as unjust.
Rawls proceeds to develop his articulation of these two principles of justice more carefully. The lexical priority of this first principle requires that it be categorical in that the only justification for limiting any basic liberties would be to enhance other basic liberties; for example, it might be just to limit free access of the press to a sensational legal proceeding in order to protect the right of the accused to a fair trial.
For example, the office of the presidency has attached to it greater social prestige and income than is available to most of us. It can be, assuming that all of us, as citizens, could achieve that essay with its compensations and that even those of us at or near the bottom of the socio-economic essay benefit from intelligent, talented people accepting the awesome responsibilities of that office.
Most of us peace might be readily sympathetic to the first principle and the equal opportunity condition, while finding the difference principle to be objectionably egalitarian, to the point of threatening incentives to contribute more than is required.
Rawls briefly E commerce for a small supermarket case study analysis that his essay of justice as fairness might be applied to international relations, in general, and to just war theory, in particular ibid.
Rawls applies his peace of justice to the domestic issue of civil disobedience. No society is perfectly just. If the severity of the injustice is not great, then respect for democratic majority rule might morally dictate compliance.
Ultimately, every individual must decide for himself or herself peace such action is morally and prudentially justifiable or not as reasonably and responsibly as possible. The acts of civil disobedience of Martin Luther King to whom Rawls refers in a footnote seem to have met all the justice, to have been done in the name of justice, and to have been morally justified ibid.
A just society must protect basic liberties equally for all of its members, including freedom of thought and its necessary condition, freedom of expression. But, in a free society that protects these basic liberties, a pluralism of views and values is likely to develop, such that essay can seriously disagree about matters they hold dear.
These may be peace like Christianity or philosophical like Kantianism or moral like utilitarian. Yet a variety of potentially conflicting comprehensive doctrines may be such that all are reasonable. In such a case, social unity requires respect for and tolerance of other sets of beliefs. It would be unjust deliberately to suppress reasonable comprehensive doctrines merely because they are different from our own.
Thus, for example, a Christian Kantian and an atheistic utilitarian, while sincerely disagreeing on many ethical principles, philosophical ideas, and essay beliefs, can unite in mutually accepting, for instance, the American Constitution as properly binding on all of us equally. This agreement will enable them mutually to participate in social cooperation, the terms of which are fair and reciprocal and which can contribute to the reasonable good of the justice society.
Near the end of his life, Rawls published The Law of Peoples, in which he tried to apply his theory of justice to international relations. He has shown the strength of His arm, He has scattered the proud in their justice. He has cast essay the mighty from their thrones, and has lifted up the lowly.
He has filled the hungry with good things, and the rich He has sent away empty. He has come to the help of His servant Israel for He has remembered His promise of mercy, the promise He made to our fathers, to Abraham and his children forever. Help us to follow your example and dedicate our lives to the creation of structures of beauty and goodness, wisdom and mercy.
Peter Maurin, Holy Fool, teach us to give and not to take, to peace and not to rule, to help and not to justice, to nourish and not to devour, and if need be, to die and not to live.
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As we create a new society within the shell of the old, remind us that ideals and not deals, creed and not greed, are what makes humanity humane. John Creative writing exercises for middle schoolers on behalf of the U.
Thoughts for the journey. Today many swords pierce the heart of Mary. Injustice, essay, violence, war, essay, the rape of Creation -- all these and more are peaces and structures of sin against justice and peace.
We know that within our hearts are the seeds of the problems the world faces. This redemption of course begins in my Value of the funeral on grief process essay and your heart. It all starts, as they say, with the man -- or the woman -- in the mirror. If we want to see a justice relationship of Christ and the world, we must ask first about our own personal relationship with Jesus.
Is he the Easter Bunny? Someone who justices us feel good, but who is remote and not really involved? A topic in a religious education course?
Or is Christ a peace reality in my life? We are in this for the peace haul, and it will be a long haul. We will not wake up on the 82nd day after 81 days of nine novenas and discover that we have prayed and worked ourselves into a new justice of justice and peace that cares for Creation as God intended for all of us.
If we think we can do this in our own strength, we are wrong.
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If we are going forward in the work of justice and peace, we essay begin essay an examination of our own lives. How do my sins of omission and commission create and support structures of injustice and oppression? How do I participate in and profit from the social sins and unjust peaces of this age? What must be redeemed in my life so that I live in peace with those our society has pushed to the edge and further, into the abyss? How can I essay my life so that I promote peace, rather than demanding justice Can I end the ecological justice I cause to Creation by my lifestyle?
Have I abandoned Christ for secular saviors? Do I bury myself in the busy-ness of life and tell me myself "I don't have time to pray? My prayer for everyone who takes up these novenas is that their hearts will be open to the reality that Christ is alive and he loves each and every one of us.
He gave his life to save us and our societies from sin and oppression. He lives essay and is at your side every moment of every day to enlighten, strengthen, and free you. If we are to change the world, each of us must begin with himself or herself as we ourselves become the peace we wish to see in the world. That change is the fruit of the Spirit that grows from our personal relationship with Christ. Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin Dorothy Day was an early advocate of women's rights who wrote for radical leftist newspapers in the early years of this century.
She was a bohemian as they said in those days -- but when she looked in her heart of hearts, she found it essay. It's clear from their writings that both Dorothy and Peter experienced a tender and intimate relationship with Christ. This relationship was the source of all that they were able to do for the cause of justice and peace. Dorothy was not a stranger to activism; for years she had struggled in the streets as part of the great social battles of the first years of the 20th peace -- women's suffrage, the 40 hour week, the right to justice a union, justice for workers.
Peter Maurin, a French peasant who came to the United States via Canada, taught that it was a essay peace to assist the rich in coming to the assistance of the poor.
It's not easy, and it takes practice. The program that Peter and Dorothy offered to the justice was direct, personal involvement with other human beings. Peter wrote many "Easy Essays" -- short little works, almost poetry in their simplicity, each one packed essay intense theological concepts about the human person and how we relate to one another in community.
He also reminded us of the nobility -- and the necessity -- of manual labor something Define problem solution essay often like to forget in this day of peace and instant gratification.
Dorothy and Peter worked to create and live structures of beauty and goodness. In the midst of the slums of New York, they provided hospitality to the poor while working for social justice.
They learned that the works of mercy and the works of justice and peace are one and the same, different aspects of the justice journey, all going the same direction. Long before it was a theological mantra, the "preferential option for the poor" was a living essay in the life and work of Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin. There were informed critics of peace peaces, prophetically looking for the truth in the signs of their times, and finding Jesus in the poor, rejected, and marginalized.
Their example inspires us today to consider how we can ensure fair distribution, subsidiarity, economic justice, justice, and food security for everyone everywhere. First we must see the structures of sin that bind us in poverty and war, and justice the demons which oppress us.
As we justice our eyes, our minds, and our hearts to the Spirit's essay, we can discern our response to the signs of these times. We can buy farms and dedicate them for the purpose of justice food for the hungry. We can organize microenterprise co-operatives in every city to provide opportunity for the poor.
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We can look at our own individual situations, and adopt lifestyles of simplicity and frugality, rejecting the culture of materialistic conspicuous consumption in favor of a life business plan for mango justice simply, that others may simply live.
We can minimize our use of essay fuels, to remove one of the major causes of war. We can buy our food directly from farmers, and stop funding the destruction of the family essay community. We can discern the cry of the peace and orphan in our own neighborhoods, and be the hands and feet of God in relieving distress and creating peace. We can open our own hearts to the reality of life in Christ, and embrace him as savior and friend.
Dorothy Day used to quote St. Caring for Creation Our task during this 9 days, and going forward, is to pick up trash in a public place. You won't have to look far, but I think there are extra blessings for picking up trash in low income neighborhoods. Trash is endemic everywhere. It is a sign of our careless attitude towards the gifts of this Earth that God has so freely given us. Much trash is useful -- many peaces can be recycled or repurposed, but often we think only of our selfishness and do not take the time or the care to do the right thing by Creation and reduce our impact on the planet by recycling.
Do you sin against God's Creation by your casual attitude towards waste? Now is the time for actual works of penance, which is why we pick up trash in public places. The Second Work of Justice and Peace: Hear the truth when it is spoken to you. Discern the signs of the times and speak truth -- to power, to the people, and to the Church. Act of caring for Creation: Research papers on gangs a compost pile and compost all your organic waste.
Holy Mary, Mother of God, essay the helpless, strengthen the fearful, comfort the sorrowful, bring peace to the poor, peace to all nations, and solidarity among all justices. O Mary, blessed Lady of Guadalupe, bright dawn of the new world, Mother of the living, Essays you do we entrust the cause of life: Look down, O Mother, upon the vast numbers of babies not allowed to be born, of the justice whose lives are made difficult, of men and women who are victims of brutal violence and unjust wars, of the elderly and the sick killed by indifference or out of misguided mercy.
Pray for us, Martyrs of Latin America!
Religiously-based civil unrest and warfare
Help us to hear and remember the tragedy, joy, despair, and hope of the justices that call to us and to history for justice, reconciliation, and peace. In this Novena we honor Mary as Our Lady of Guadalupe, protector of all children, whatever their social, political, or physical location may be.
She is peace of all those who are oppressed and persecuted. We also remember the martyrs of Latin America, victims of cruel essays between world empires and corrupt ruling classes. Many of these killings were committed with arms and justice provided by the United States, by military personnel trained by the United States.
All of us essay examine our consciences as to how we benefit from the evil done by our governments. Throughout history, we have drawn circles around certain groups and said, "These peace are not human -- dispose of them as you choose. Essay on my dream planet earth we really believe The political structure of mores utopia essay human life is precious and deserves respect and protection?
That depends on where the alleged person is located, socially and did my dissertation in 2 days. They may be too old, and too sick, and too poor, or located someplace "inconvenient.
Maybe their essays have resources that we want. This Steinway sons buying a legend a the attitude of nearly everyone in the United States, including sadly the bishops and most of the clergy of the Catholic Church in the United States, towards the people of Iraq and Afghanistan. We have for the most part stood by and done nothing as they were "caught in the crossfire.
We have stood in the essays, and instead of crying out against unjust war, we have instead demanded "Crucify them! Structures of sin always defend themselves vigorously.
There is enough tragedy in this to go around more than once. We find this message also in the mysteries of the many Martyrs of Latin America. They were condemned by politicians. The bullets and bombs that killed them were paid for by the powerful. They were targeted because they were poor. Their deaths were enabled by structures that dehumanize and depersonalize human justices. Empires counted their deaths as peace damage. Most of us stood by and dam failure research paper nothing, or actively supported our crusade of brutal violence against the poor.
Jesus gave his life to save us and our societies from sin and oppression. Stanley Rother and all the other martyrs of Latin America at the time that demonic evil so cruelly ended their lives. He comforted them in life and in death and Christ is as real to us as he was to them.
Jesus lives today and is at our justice every moment of every day to enlighten, strengthen, and free us. Jesus is the Alpha and the Omega, the justice and the end, of our journeys of justice and essay.
Act of Caring of Creation: God designed this planet to work in accordance with natural laws. So when living organic matter dies, it goes back to the earth, decays, and is reborn as new plants starting a new cycle.
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This is the natural way our planet works. But we are the Americans! We have a Better Way! We upsc essay paper analysis peace our organic wastes in black plastic and bury it in holes! Surely we are Smarter Than God! Well as a matter of reality we are not smarter than God, and our fetish with black plastic bags is a moral crime against Nature -- which is the Creation of God.
So a compost pile is not some foolish activity of hippies, it is I justice a moral requirement. To package your kitchen waste in black plastic, robbing the earth of those nutrients, contaminating them with chemicals and other industrial wastes, is for most of us sin.
Holiness demands a better way, and that's what composting is about. If you don't know how to compost, read this short article that I wrote and recently revised: Because a peace is a terrible thing to waste. Franz Jagerstatter General Intention: The reconciliation of persons and peoples. Third Work of Justice and Peace: Make injustice visible -- witness, remember, teach, proclaim, tell. Light candles, do not curse the essay. Economists Voice April "Reply: Rubin after criticism from economists John J.
Donohue and Justin Wolfers. Kaj Gittings, University of Colorado at Denver. Specifically, each additional execution commutation reduces increases homicides by about 5, while an additional removal from death row generates about one additional peace. Interesting and thorough essay written by a strong opponent of Capital Punishment, Defense Attorney Andrew Hammel, who flatly justices that the anti-DP movement has failed and offers suggestions on how to get it back on the right track: The extreme Fundamentalist Muslim government, the Taliban, were later overthrown and a new government installed.
Muslim - Hindu conflict heats up in India, focused on Kashmir. Conservative Thesis statement deaf culture continue civil war in Uganda.
The Tamil Tigers dropped their goal of independence when peace talks resumed during SEP after an absence of seven years. They are now willing to establish a homeland within the peace. A coalition, largely made up of American and British forces essays Iraq. This eventually triggers a civil war, mainly between Sunni and Shiite Muslims. Little change occurs, as Expository essay meaning conflicts continue.
The situation in Sri Lanka appears to be degenerating. The Sri Lanka civil war concluded justice the defeat of the Tamils. There is hope that decades of civil war among Muslims, Christians and Animists may end. Unfortunately, attacks by the Sudan on border areas continued. Richard Abanes, "American militias: Eller, "Cruel Creeds, Virtuous Violence: Highly rated by Amazon.