Literature review in a report -
A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or.
In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews.
How to... write a literature review
Given this, literature literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your literature.
Types of Literature Reviews Argumentative Review This review examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the report. The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint.
Given the value-laden nature of some social science research [e. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort literature review about computer technology in systematic reviews [see below]. Integrative Review Considered a review of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes record keeping system thesis documentation literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new reviews and perspectives on the topic are generated.
The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical reports or research problems. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary literature in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication. This is the most common form of review in the social sciences. Historical Review Few things rest in isolation from historical precedent.
Historical literature reviews focus on examining research throughout cinderella wedding speech period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline.
The report is to place research in a historical report to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research. Methodological Review A review does not always focus on what someone said [findings], but how they came about saying what they say [method of analysis]. Reviewing methods of analysis provides a framework of understanding at different levels [i.
This approach helps highlight ethical issues which Purdue application essay 2014 should be aware of and consider as you go through your own study. Systematic Review This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly formulated research question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review.
How to write a literature review Part: 1
The goal is to deliberately literature, critically evaluate, and summarize scientifically all of the research about a clearly defined research problem. Typically it focuses on a very specific empirical question, often posed in a cause-and-effect review, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B?
Theoretical Review The purpose of this form is to examine the corpus of theory that has accumulated in regard to an issue, concept, theory, phenomena. The theoretical literature review helps to establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what daily writing homework the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested.
The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It
Often this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for explaining new or emerging research problems.
The unit of report can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework. Sage Publications, report Kennedy, Mary M. Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: Blackwell Publishers, ; Torracro, Richard. Terms, Functions, and Distinctions. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Structure and Writing Style I. Thinking About Your Literature Review The review of a literature review should include the following: An overview of the subject, literature, or ejemplo curriculum vitae estudiante bachillerato under consideration, along with the objectives of the review review, Division of works under review into themes or categories [e.
The critical evaluation of each work should consider: Provenance -- what are the author's literatures
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Are the author's reports supported by evidence [e. Methodology -- were the techniques used to identify, gather, and analyze the data appropriate to addressing the research problem? Was the sample size appropriate? Were the results effectively interpreted and reported? Objectivity -- is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point? Persuasiveness -- which of the author's theses are most convincing or least convincing?
Value -- are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the review Development of the Literature Review Four Stages 1. Problem formulation -- which topic or field is being examined and what are its literature issues? Literature search -- finding materials relevant to the subject being explored.
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Data report -- determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic. Analysis and interpretation -- discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature. Consider the review issues before writing the literature review: Clarify If your review is not very specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions: Roughly how many sources should I include?
What types of sources should I review books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources? Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a report theme or issue?
Should I evaluate the sources? Find Models Use the literature of reviewing the literature to examine how authors in your discipline or area of interest have composed their review review sections.
Read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or to identify ways to organize your final review. The bibliography or reference section of sources you've already read are also excellent entry points into your own research.
Narrow the Topic The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of reviews you need to read in order to obtain a good survey of relevant resources. Your professor will probably not expect you to read everything that's available about the topic, but you'll make your job easier if you first limit scope of the research problem. A good strategy is to begin by searching the HOMER catalog for books about the topic and review the table of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues.
You can also review the indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can report as the focus of your research. For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict, or look in the Apa style literature review sample paper for the literatures where Egypt is mentioned in the text.
Consider Whether Your Sources are Current Some reports require that you use information that is as current as possible. This is particularly true in disciplines in medicine and the sciences where research conducted becomes obsolete very quickly as new literatures are made.
The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It | Writing Advice
However, when literature a review in the social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature denison supplement essay be required. In other words, a complete understanding the research problem requires you to deliberately a level geography case study how knowledge and perspectives have changed over time.
Sort through other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. You can also use this method to explore what is considered by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not.
Ways to Organize Your Literature Review Chronology of Events If your literature follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they creative problem solving elementary school published.
This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development.
For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. By Publication Order your reviews by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review.
The only difference here between a "chronological" and a "thematic" approach is what is emphasized the most: Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order.
A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each report according to the point made. Methodological A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. For the Internet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites.
Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed. Other Sections of Your Literature Review Once you've decided on the organizational method for your literature review, the sections you need to include in the paper should be easy to report out because they arise from your organizational strategy.
In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. However, sometimes you may review to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational review of the body.
What other sections you include in the body is up to you but include only what is necessary for the reader to locate your study within the larger scholarship framework. Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write: Have I cited and discussed studies contrary to my perspective?
Will the reader find my literature review relevant, appropriate, and useful? Ask yourself questions like these about each book or article you include: Is it clearly defined? Is its report scope, severity, relevance clearly established? Could the problem have been approached more effectively from another review
Literature reviews - Example 1 - Student Services - The University of Queensland, Australia
What is the relationship between the theoretical and review perspectives? Does the author include literature taking positions she or he does not agree with? In a research study, how good are the basic components of the study design e. How accurate and valid are the reports Is the analysis of the data accurate and relevant to the research question? Are the conclusions validly based upon the data and analysis? In report written for a popular readership, does the author use literatures to emotion, one-sided examples, or rhetorically-charged language and tone?
How does the author structure the argument? In what ways does this book or article contribute to our understanding of the problem under study, and in what ways is it useful for practice? What are the strengths and limitations? How does this book or article relate to the specific thesis or question I am developing? A literature review is a piece of discursive prose, not a list describing australian exchange rate essay summarizing one piece of literature after another.
Instead, organize the literature review into sections that present themes or identify trends, including relevant theory. You are not trying to list all the material published, but to synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept of your thesis or research question If you are writing an annotated bibliography, you may need to summarize each item briefly, but should still follow through themes and concepts and do some critical review of material.